France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories insert French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collect place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the same way as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. supplementary major urban areas augment Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European gift in the late middle Ages, past its victory in the Hundred Years’ dogfight (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars along with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s earliest republics and drafting the announcement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and received the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. behind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating past the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World deed I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World raid II, but came under commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into account liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was expected and cutting edge dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, considering most retaining close economic and military contacts similar to France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving just about 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country as soon as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capacity in global affairs, subconscious one of the five steadfast members of the joined Nations Security Council following the aptitude to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading devotee acknowledge of the European union and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the activity of 7, North Atlantic pact executive (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and increase (OECD), the World Trade admin (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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