France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories total French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a accumulate area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic considering its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. additional major urban areas improve Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European knack in the tardy middle Ages, subsequent to its victory in the Hundred Years’ suit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military gift in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of objector history’s olden republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. later than the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating afterward the introduction of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World war I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World conflict II, but came under movement by the Axis powers in 1940. in imitation of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and higher dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the manner of most retaining close economic and military connections later France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in this area 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country following the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, beast one of the five remaining members of the united Nations Security Council gone the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast give access of the European union and the Eurozone, and a believer of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic agreement organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and expand (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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