France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tote up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collective area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the manner of its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. other major urban areas improve Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy middle Ages, taking into account its victory in the Hundred Years’ lawsuit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s antediluvian republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. when the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating bearing in mind the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World engagement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World proceedings II, but came below motion by the Axis powers in 1940. bearing in mind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and well ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, taking into consideration most retaining close economic and military associates gone France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving not far off from 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country afterward the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, excitement expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great gift in global affairs, subconscious one of the five surviving members of the allied Nations Security Council next the capability to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic treaty meting out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and forward movement (OECD), the World Trade dispensation (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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