Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern attach bearing in mind the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area brute dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, with exceeding 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its gigantic area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, past four clear seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years since European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and well along settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, subsequently the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the work of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada encounter of 1982, which severed the vestiges of real habit on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, taking into consideration Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionada of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of paperwork transparency, civil liberties, feel of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and perplexing attachment with the joined States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human loan Index. Its advocate economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the charity of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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