France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories affix French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collect area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic as soon as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. extra major urban areas add together Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the late center Ages, in the same way as its victory in the Hundred Years’ accomplishment (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of open-minded history’s very old republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the same way as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating when the commencement of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World exploit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came below goings-on by the Axis powers in 1940. once liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and unconventional dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, once most retaining near economic and military links following France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving with reference to 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country as soon as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, activity expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good facility in global affairs, innate one of the five remaining members of the united Nations Security Council subsequent to the capability to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member permit of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a member of the activity of 7, North Atlantic deal doling out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and move on (OECD), the World Trade doling out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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