Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern border once the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place brute dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, bearing in mind over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its huge area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, in imitation of four sure seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years since European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and well ahead settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the grip of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the be active of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada lawsuit of 1982, which severed the vestiges of valid habit on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, like Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a believer of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of admin transparency, civil liberties, mood of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many additional countries. Canada’s long and perplexing attachment later the united States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human press on Index. Its modern economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is portion of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic concurrence Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the society of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade appointment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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