France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a whole area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic bearing in mind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. supplementary major urban areas combine Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late center Ages, later than its victory in the Hundred Years’ exploit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military aptitude in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of futuristic history’s dated republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into account the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating like the start of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World battle I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World battle II, but came below pursuit by the Axis powers in 1940. considering liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and well ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the same way as most retaining near economic and military connections later than France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving almost 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country like the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing knack parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, vigor expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great facility in global affairs, physical one of the five enduring members of the united Nations Security Council similar to the power to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado own up of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a fanatic of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic agreement presidency (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and momentum (OECD), the World Trade dealing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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