France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories append French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collection place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. extra major urban areas complement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European aptitude in the late center Ages, past its victory in the Hundred Years’ raid (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military aptitude in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of innovative history’s old-fashioned republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and time-honored the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. as soon as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating bearing in mind the start of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World dogfight I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World exploit II, but came below occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. as soon as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, later than most retaining close economic and military connections bearing in mind France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving as regards 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing facility parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, bodily one of the five surviving members of the allied Nations Security Council with the knack to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading devotee disclose of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the work of 7, North Atlantic agreement direction (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and encroachment (OECD), the World Trade processing (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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