Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern link up taking into consideration the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house place creature dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, in imitation of higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, like four distinct seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and well along arranged along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, subsequent to the devotion of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an buildup of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the decree of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada engagement of 1982, which severed the vestiges of valid habit on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, later Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a fanatic of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of supervision transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and obscure membership bearing in mind the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human move on Index. Its campaigner economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the society of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade succession and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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