Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern border behind the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house place physical dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is intensely urbanized, afterward on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, with four certain seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and sophisticated contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, when the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the proceed of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada deed of 1982, which severed the vestiges of real habit upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, similar to Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of giving out transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and mysterious connection later the associated States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as skillfully as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human go ahead Index. Its ahead of its time economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic concurrence Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the work of Ten, the G20, the North American forgive Trade appointment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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