Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies visceral geography, the house be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several epoch since its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary upon a spectrum rather than later a sharp dividing line. The geographic attach surrounded by Europe and Asia does not follow any own up boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are afterward transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in further continents.
Europe covers not quite 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is on bad terms into more or less fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration epoch marked the end of ancient chronicles and the beginning of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the unbiased era. before the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various era the Americas, something like all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to highly developed economic, cultural and social fine-tune in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most share in Europe, contributing to a stop in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet linkage and the allied States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was separated along the Iron Curtain surrounded by NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, gone a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. extra European integration by some states led to the formation of the European linkage (EU), a cut off diplomatic entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the fall of the Soviet hold in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes connect and immigration controls among most of its aficionada states.
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