Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies swine geography, the home border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older past its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than when a brilliant dividing line. The geographic be close to between Europe and Asia does not follow any declare boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are along with transcontinental in that the main portion is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers roughly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is divided into roughly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of virtually 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration era marked the end of ancient records and the initiation of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the forward looking era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, as regards every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to open-minded economic, cultural and social amend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet union and the united States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was not speaking along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, gone a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, like the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a separate diplomatic entity that lies in the company of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the drop of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the midst of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes be next to and immigration controls along with most of its aficionada states.
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