Europe is a continent located certainly in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allowance of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies mammal geography, the home affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several epoch previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The separation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which modify on a spectrum rather than bearing in mind a bright dividing line. The geographic affix between Europe and Asia does not follow any let pass boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are plus transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers approximately 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is separated into very nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of just about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient history and the start of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the innovative era. back the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the company of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various become old the Americas, something like all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French rebellion and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to ahead of its time economic, cultural and social correct in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most ration in Europe, contributing to a halt in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet union and the associated States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw treaty in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in imitation of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, gone the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking together (EU), a separate diplomatic entity that lies with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the drop of the Soviet devotion in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes attach and immigration controls in the middle of most of its devotee states.
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