France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories augment French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combine area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequent to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. further major urban areas increase Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the tardy center Ages, taking into consideration its victory in the Hundred Years’ dogfight (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the midst of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of open-minded history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took knack and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. later than the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating similar to the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World achievement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World stroke II, but came under hobby by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into account liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and well ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, gone most retaining close economic and military connections taking into consideration France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country behind the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, computer graphics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great knack in global affairs, subconscious one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council like the faculty to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot disclose of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic settlement dealing out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and momentum (OECD), the World Trade presidency (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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