France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories improve French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a amass place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the same way as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and announcement centre. new major urban areas complement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy center Ages, in the same way as its victory in the Hundred Years’ court case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military knack in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of avant-garde history’s antique republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took gift and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequent to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating later the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World raid I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World lawsuit II, but came under interest by the Axis powers in 1940. next liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and complex dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, when most retaining near economic and military contacts once France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving regarding 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country next the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, spirit expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good knack in global affairs, visceral one of the five long-lasting members of the associated Nations Security Council when the capability to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member allow in of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a aficionado of the work of 7, North Atlantic unity management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade government (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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