France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories affix French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collect place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic bearing in mind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. extra major urban areas tote up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy middle Ages, gone its victory in the Hundred Years’ case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military gift in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of enlightened history’s primordial republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. next the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating considering the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World skirmish I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World feat II, but came below endeavor by the Axis powers in 1940. gone liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and highly developed dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, with most retaining near economic and military contacts subsequently France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in the region of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country as soon as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good facility in global affairs, beast one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council in the manner of the capacity to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada welcome of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the work of 7, North Atlantic concurrence management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and move ahead (OECD), the World Trade handing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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