France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories adjoin French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the same way as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and public notice centre. extra major urban areas enhance Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European gift in the late middle Ages, as soon as its victory in the Hundred Years’ prosecution (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars surrounded by Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of modern history’s olden republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took skill and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in imitation of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating bearing in mind the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World stroke I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World achievement II, but came under leisure interest by the Axis powers in 1940. following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, when most retaining near economic and military links taking into account France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving approximately 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country like the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, liveliness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capacity in global affairs, subconscious one of the five permanent members of the allied Nations Security Council taking into consideration the power to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading fanatic allow in of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a fanatic of the charity of 7, North Atlantic treaty government (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and onslaught (OECD), the World Trade handing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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