France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories adjoin French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a summative area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequent to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. new major urban areas count Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European power in the tardy center Ages, later than its victory in the Hundred Years’ charge (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars together with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of militant history’s archaic republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and acknowledged the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. similar to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating gone the commencement of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World combat I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World accomplishment II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequently liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, considering most retaining close economic and military associates next France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving all but 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequent to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing knack parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, cartoon expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good talent in global affairs, mammal one of the five long-lasting members of the allied Nations Security Council in the manner of the capability to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading devotee allow in of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the society of 7, North Atlantic concurrence giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and build up (OECD), the World Trade executive (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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