Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory next includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera make Spain the unaided European country to have a innate connect gone an African country (Morocco). Several little islands in the Alboran Sea are furthermore allowance of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small estate boundary later than Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the niche of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; extra major urban areas increase Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula nearly 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along next ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came below Roman announce around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based upon the earlier Phoenician broadcast Sp(a)n or Spania. At the stop of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and customary relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly join all steadfast independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally every the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was next documented as Hispania.
In the in advance eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to consider most of the peninsula in the year 726, rejection unaided a handful of little Christian realms in the north and lasting stirring to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the establishment of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to outlook the invasion. following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country below the Catholic Monarchs.
In the in advance advanced period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving behind a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were next many advancements in the arts, considering world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most renowned Spanish speculative work, Don Quixote, was as well as published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, taking into account King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a tall pension country, like the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing skill parity. It is a believer of the united Nations (UN), the European devotion (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the admin of Ibero-American States (OEI), the union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic unity processing (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and money up front (OECD), supervision for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade executive (WTO) and many further international organisations. though not an endorsed member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto aficionado of the group.
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