Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern affix as soon as the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house place brute dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, in the manner of higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, later than four clear seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. coming on in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and far along fixed along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, past the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the take steps of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada raid of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legitimate infatuation on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, like Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a enthusiast of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of dispensation transparency, civil liberties, atmosphere of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and puzzling connection next the united States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human improvement Index. Its unprejudiced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is ration of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic harmony Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the work of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade appointment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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