France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories total French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collective place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic next its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. further major urban areas attach Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European power in the late center Ages, taking into consideration its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars along with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of unbiased history’s old-fashioned republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and expected the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequent to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating in the manner of the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World engagement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World war II, but came under hobby by the Axis powers in 1940. bearing in mind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and far ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, gone most retaining near economic and military contacts gone France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving approaching 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequently the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, liveliness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capacity in global affairs, visceral one of the five long-lasting members of the united Nations Security Council later the aptitude to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member let in of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic settlement organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade handing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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