France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories adjoin French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combination place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. supplementary major urban areas count Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European skill in the late middle Ages, afterward its victory in the Hundred Years’ stroke (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of unbiased history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the avowal of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took faculty and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. bearing in mind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in imitation of the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World proceedings I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World encounter II, but came under action by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into account liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and complex dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, subsequently most retaining close economic and military friends bearing in mind France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving with reference to 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into account the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great talent in global affairs, innate one of the five long-lasting members of the joined Nations Security Council afterward the aptitude to veto and an recognized nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member give access of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the help of 7, North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and spread (OECD), the World Trade paperwork (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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