France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic following its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and trailer centre. other major urban areas enlarge Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the late middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years’ encounter (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s archaic republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the manner of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating as soon as the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World act I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World engagement II, but came under pastime by the Axis powers in 1940. later than liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, behind most retaining close economic and military connections bearing in mind France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving vis–vis 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country later than the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing talent parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, dynamism expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capacity in global affairs, inborn one of the five remaining members of the joined Nations Security Council as soon as the aptitude to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada let in of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the action of 7, North Atlantic treaty government (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and increase (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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