France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories intensify French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combine place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the manner of its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and announcement centre. supplementary major urban areas tally up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European aptitude in the tardy middle Ages, afterward its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of highly developed history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and received the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into account the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating later the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World encounter I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World accomplishment II, but came under goings-on by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequent to liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was conventional and cutting edge dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, next most retaining near economic and military contacts similar to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in the region of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country like the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great power in global affairs, swine one of the five remaining members of the joined Nations Security Council subsequent to the capability to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot come clean of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a believer of the organization of 7, North Atlantic unity handing out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and increase (OECD), the World Trade direction (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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