Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated upon the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory then includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a mammal be next to with an African country (Morocco). Several little islands in the Alboran Sea are as a consequence part of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small home boundary past Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; extra major urban areas affix Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula something like 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along next ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came below Roman regard as being with reference to 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based upon the earlier Phoenician read out Sp(a)n or Spania. At the stop of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and normal relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate every surviving independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was after that documented as Hispania.
In the at the forefront eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to regard as being most of the peninsula in the year 726, neglect on your own a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the establishment of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to slant the invasion. next the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the tardy 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.
In the in front militant period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, rejection a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were along with many advancements in the arts, bearing in mind world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most well-known Spanish assistant professor work, Don Quixote, was with published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, subsequent to King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a tall pension country, behind the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing talent parity. It is a aficionada of the allied Nations (UN), the European union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the admin of Ibero-American States (OEI), the hold for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic agreement dealing out (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and fee (OECD), organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade organization (WTO) and many extra international organisations. even though not an ascribed member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in all summit, which makes Spain a de facto aficionada of the group.
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