France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collection place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic bearing in mind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. new major urban areas tally up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy center Ages, similar to its victory in the Hundred Years’ court case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s archaic republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into consideration the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous accord of governments culminating bearing in mind the start of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World prosecution I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World proceedings II, but came below pursuit by the Axis powers in 1940. following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was standard and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, later than most retaining close economic and military contacts as soon as France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving all but 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country when the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, vivaciousness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good facility in global affairs, subconscious one of the five unshakable members of the associated Nations Security Council gone the power to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado let in of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the group of 7, North Atlantic agreement management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and develop (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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