France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories attach French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic gone its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and trailer centre. further major urban areas enlarge Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy middle Ages, afterward its victory in the Hundred Years’ fighting (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military aptitude in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of broadminded history’s primeval republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took skill and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. later the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating afterward the introduction of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World combat I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World suit II, but came under doings by the Axis powers in 1940. considering liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and higher dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, subsequently most retaining close economic and military associates taking into consideration France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving approaching 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country afterward the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, innate one of the five permanent members of the associated Nations Security Council like the aptitude to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot divulge of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the group of 7, North Atlantic treaty processing (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and proceed (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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