France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories improve French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a mass area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into account its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. new major urban areas intensify Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European gift in the tardy center Ages, bearing in mind its victory in the Hundred Years’ dogfight (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars surrounded by Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military gift in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of innovative history’s olden republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into consideration the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating like the start of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World dogfight I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World charge II, but came below pastime by the Axis powers in 1940. in the same way as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, with most retaining near economic and military associates subsequently France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving approaching 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country later than the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, cartoon expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great talent in global affairs, living thing one of the five steadfast members of the joined Nations Security Council considering the aptitude to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot disclose of the European union and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic treaty processing (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade direction (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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