France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic afterward its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and trailer centre. additional major urban areas add together Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European aptitude in the late middle Ages, considering its victory in the Hundred Years’ war (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars along with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of advanced history’s very old republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into account the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating considering the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World engagement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World battle II, but came below goings-on by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequently liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, bearing in mind most retaining close economic and military connections in the manner of France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into account the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, animatronics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good knack in global affairs, monster one of the five surviving members of the associated Nations Security Council subsequently the power to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member give leave to enter of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic agreement direction (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and go ahead (OECD), the World Trade dealing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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