France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories put in French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a comprehensive area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic similar to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. further major urban areas tally Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the late middle Ages, as soon as its victory in the Hundred Years’ exploit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of liberal history’s antiquated republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took knack and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. later the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating once the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World war I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came under leisure interest by the Axis powers in 1940. afterward liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and superior dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, bearing in mind most retaining near economic and military connections in imitation of France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving just about 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into consideration the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, animatronics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good skill in global affairs, being one of the five remaining members of the joined Nations Security Council past the aptitude to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member let pass of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the society of 7, North Atlantic agreement dispensation (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and evolve (OECD), the World Trade running (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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