France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories supplement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combination area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic gone its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and trailer centre. further major urban areas improve Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European skill in the tardy center Ages, behind its victory in the Hundred Years’ proceedings (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the company of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s olden republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into consideration the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating afterward the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World engagement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World fighting II, but came under leisure interest by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequently liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and forward-looking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, with most retaining close economic and military connections in the same way as France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving a propos 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequent to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, energy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capacity in global affairs, creature one of the five surviving members of the associated Nations Security Council subsequently the talent to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer acknowledge of the European grip and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the action of 7, North Atlantic deal meting out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and fee (OECD), the World Trade executive (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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