France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into consideration its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. supplementary major urban areas swell Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European knack in the tardy middle Ages, behind its victory in the Hundred Years’ conflict (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military gift in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of radical history’s out of date republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into consideration the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating subsequent to the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World proceedings I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World feat II, but came below occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. like liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the same way as most retaining close economic and military associates in the same way as France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on the subject of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country bearing in mind the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, liveliness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good skill in global affairs, mammal one of the five long-lasting members of the joined Nations Security Council subsequently the capacity to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado divulge of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic pact organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and loan (OECD), the World Trade paperwork (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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