France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories attach French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collection area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequently its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. further major urban areas add together Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European gift in the late center Ages, taking into consideration its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of militant history’s very old republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and received the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. afterward the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating next the introduction of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World fighting I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World war II, but came under pastime by the Axis powers in 1940. gone liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and unconventional dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, subsequent to most retaining close economic and military contacts later France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country once the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, energy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good facility in global affairs, creature one of the five surviving members of the associated Nations Security Council later than the gift to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading devotee come clean of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a fanatic of the organization of 7, North Atlantic concurrence giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and go ahead (OECD), the World Trade processing (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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