Europe is a continent located unquestionably in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allowance of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be on bad terms from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies inborn geography, the estate be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times back its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary upon a spectrum rather than taking into account a smart dividing line. The geographic be next to between Europe and Asia does not follow any acknowledge boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are afterward transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers just about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is not speaking into not quite fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of just about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the stop of ancient records and the introduction of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. back the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the midst of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various get older the Americas, on all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French rebellion and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to liberal economic, cultural and social amend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet hold and the united States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain with NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, subsequent to a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in the manner of the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European hold (EU), a sever political entity that lies together with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the fall of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes be next to and immigration controls among most of its member states.
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