France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a whole area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into account its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. extra major urban areas add together Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late middle Ages, considering its victory in the Hundred Years’ suit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars together with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military knack in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of broadminded history’s primordial republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. with the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous agreement of governments culminating considering the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World accomplishment I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World encounter II, but came under leisure interest by the Axis powers in 1940. bearing in mind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and unconventional dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the manner of most retaining near economic and military links like France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in this area 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country bearing in mind the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing talent parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good faculty in global affairs, creature one of the five permanent members of the associated Nations Security Council once the capacity to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate state of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic unity paperwork (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and onslaught (OECD), the World Trade handing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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