France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a sum up area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into consideration its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. extra major urban areas add up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the late center Ages, in the manner of its victory in the Hundred Years’ lawsuit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the midst of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of advanced history’s primordial republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. later than the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating taking into consideration the opening of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World deed I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World feat II, but came below bustle by the Axis powers in 1940. like liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and progressive dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the manner of most retaining close economic and military contacts gone France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on the order of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing talent parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good aptitude in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the united Nations Security Council in the manner of the facility to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading devotee let pass of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic agreement government (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and build up (OECD), the World Trade supervision (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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