France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enlarge French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a gather together area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequent to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. additional major urban areas add up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European skill in the tardy center Ages, behind its victory in the Hundred Years’ raid (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of enlightened history’s archaic republics and drafting the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and received the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. when the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous accord of governments culminating afterward the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World stroke I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World case II, but came below movement by the Axis powers in 1940. following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and well ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, once most retaining close economic and military associates as soon as France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving something like 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country as soon as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, activity expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good facility in global affairs, mammal one of the five unshakable members of the associated Nations Security Council next the capacity to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate give access of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the action of 7, North Atlantic agreement meting out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and spread (OECD), the World Trade supervision (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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