Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allocation of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies being geography, the estate be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several epoch since its first conception in classical antiquity. The separation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which rework on a spectrum rather than later than a smart dividing line. The geographic border amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any come clean boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are furthermore transcontinental in that the main portion is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers nearly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of house area). Politically, Europe is at odds into roughly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of not quite 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. extra from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration era marked the stop of ancient history and the coming on of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the advanced era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. along with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various epoch the Americas, vis–vis every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French rebellion and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to broadminded economic, cultural and social correct in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decrease in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet bond and the joined States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was not speaking along the Iron Curtain together with NATO in the West and the Warsaw treaty in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, with a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, taking into consideration the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a surgically remove embassy entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the drop of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes attach and immigration controls in the middle of most of its enthusiast states.
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