Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory next includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera create Spain the unaided European country to have a brute be next to next an African country (Morocco). Several little islands in the Alboran Sea are afterward allowance of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a little home boundary bearing in mind Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an place of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; supplementary major urban areas supplement Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula in the region of 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along afterward ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came below Roman declare in the region of 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based upon the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the stop of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and traditional relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate every remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally every the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was subsequently documented as Hispania.
In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to consider most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving solitary a handful of little Christian realms in the north and lasting stirring to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering era across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the commencement of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to viewpoint the invasion. once the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the tardy 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country below the Catholic Monarchs.
In the prematurely advocate period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving behind a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken indigenous language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were afterward many advancements in the arts, gone world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most famous Spanish intellectual work, Don Quixote, was with published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, bearing in mind King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high income country, as soon as the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing aptitude parity. It is a fanatic of the joined Nations (UN), the European devotion (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the giving out of Ibero-American States (OEI), the linkage for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic concurrence executive (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and onslaught (OECD), management for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade organization (WTO) and many other international organisations. while not an recognized member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in all summit, which makes Spain a de facto aficionado of the group.
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