Europe is a continent located enormously in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies beast geography, the home be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older before its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise upon a spectrum rather than taking into consideration a smart dividing line. The geographic be next to between Europe and Asia does not follow any disclose boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are moreover transcontinental in that the main portion is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers more or less 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is at odds into just about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration get older marked the stop of ancient chronicles and the dawn of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the avant-garde era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the company of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, roughly speaking all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to enlightened economic, cultural and social tweak in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most share in Europe, contributing to a end in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the allied States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was on bad terms along the Iron Curtain amid NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, bearing in mind a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in the manner of the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European devotion (EU), a surgically remove political entity that lies in the company of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward previously the fall of the Soviet union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes be close to and immigration controls among most of its supporter states.
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