Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern border behind the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, past higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, in imitation of four positive seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, like the linkage of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the produce an effect of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada deed of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true craving on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, as soon as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of management transparency, civil liberties, tone of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and profound membership bearing in mind the associated States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as without difficulty as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human increase Index. Its unbiased economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the society of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade accord and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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