Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be close to as soon as the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home area bodily dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is intensely urbanized, once on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four determined seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years past European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and highly developed contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, taking into consideration the grip of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the take effect of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada conflict of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal infatuation on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a advocate of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of dealing out transparency, civil liberties, air of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many additional countries. Canada’s long and mysterious relationship next the united States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its militant economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the action of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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