France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories complement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collective place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in imitation of its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. other major urban areas add up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European gift in the late center Ages, next its victory in the Hundred Years’ suit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military gift in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s olden republics and drafting the announcement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the manner of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous agreement of governments culminating later than the opening of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World charge I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World prosecution II, but came under hobby by the Axis powers in 1940. later than liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the same way as most retaining near economic and military connections behind France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving a propos 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country afterward the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capacity in global affairs, swine one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council when the capability to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado declare of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a member of the society of 7, North Atlantic agreement handing out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and forward movement (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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