France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories complement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a sum up place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic past its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. further major urban areas total Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the late middle Ages, subsequently its victory in the Hundred Years’ deed (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars along with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of futuristic history’s antique republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the manner of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating later the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World lawsuit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came under bustle by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequently liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and cutting edge dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, considering most retaining near economic and military contacts next France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving concerning 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country later the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good power in global affairs, living thing one of the five remaining members of the associated Nations Security Council bearing in mind the power to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate state of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the action of 7, North Atlantic unity processing (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and loan (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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