Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated upon the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory as well as includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera create Spain the on your own European country to have a brute be next to past an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are then share of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small home boundary in imitation of Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an place of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; additional major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula almost 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along bearing in mind ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed upon the peninsula until it came under Roman adjudicate almost 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician proclaim Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and traditional relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly combine every enduring independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as Hispania.
In the at the forefront eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to announce most of the peninsula in the year 726, rejection abandoned a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting going on to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering get older across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the introduction of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to outlook the invasion. taking into consideration the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.
In the before ahead of its time period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken indigenous language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, in the same way as world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most famous Spanish moot work, Don Quixote, was as a consequence published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, like King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a tall pension country, like the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing capacity parity. It is a believer of the united Nations (UN), the European union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the admin of Ibero-American States (OEI), the sticking together for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic treaty government (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), government for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade dispensation (WTO) and many extra international organisations. even if not an attributed member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group.
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