France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories attach French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a comprehensive place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic when its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. supplementary major urban areas complement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European aptitude in the tardy center Ages, in imitation of its victory in the Hundred Years’ skirmish (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of ahead of its time history’s antediluvian republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. like the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating taking into consideration the launch of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World conflict I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came below movement by the Axis powers in 1940. afterward liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and far along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, in imitation of most retaining close economic and military links taking into account France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving more or less 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country afterward the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, energy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great facility in global affairs, physical one of the five unshakable members of the associated Nations Security Council in the same way as the talent to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado let pass of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic pact government (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD), the World Trade direction (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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