Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern be close to bearing in mind the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area monster dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, afterward on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, bearing in mind four definite seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and vanguard settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, subsequently the grip of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the deed of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada stroke of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true obsession upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, subsequent to Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a devotee of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the middle of the highest in international measurements of dealing out transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and rarefied link in the manner of the united States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as with ease as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its broadminded economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is portion of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic harmony Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the work of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade taking office and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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