France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories adjoin French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a summative place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic afterward its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. additional major urban areas enlarge Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the tardy center Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of advocate history’s earliest republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequently the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating in imitation of the launch of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World warfare I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World feat II, but came below commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. in the same way as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and future dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, afterward most retaining close economic and military connections following France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country past the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, simulation expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good skill in global affairs, innate one of the five enduring members of the joined Nations Security Council afterward the capacity to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast make a clean breast of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a member of the organization of 7, North Atlantic settlement organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enhancement (OECD), the World Trade dealing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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