Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern affix with the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house area innate dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, like more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, gone four clear seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and higher arranged along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, later than the devotion of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the take effect of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada dogfight of 1982, which severed the vestiges of genuine infatuation upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, gone Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a zealot of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of presidency transparency, civil liberties, air of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and complex relationship similar to the joined States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human go ahead Index. Its unbiased economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is ration of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the society of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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