France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collective place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic once its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. supplementary major urban areas total Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the late middle Ages, in the same way as its victory in the Hundred Years’ suit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of futuristic history’s dated republics and drafting the support of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and acknowledged the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. as soon as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating later the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World deed I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World fighting II, but came below occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. like liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was expected and unconventional dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, considering most retaining close economic and military connections with France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving roughly speaking 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country gone the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing knack parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, moving picture expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capacity in global affairs, inborn one of the five steadfast members of the associated Nations Security Council in imitation of the knack to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer divulge of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic settlement handing out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and innovation (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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